Showing posts with label Operating System. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Operating System. Show all posts

Wednesday, 8 December 2021

How to Make an Operating System from Scratch?

How to Make an Operating System from Scratch

Do you want to make your OS from scratch? It is not mandatory to have knowledge of coding for all. You can create an operating system even though you don't know C or C++ coding. The operating system has the responsibility for adjusting the PC hardware. When you write an OS from scratch, you have to have a strong command of computer science. It should be of a programming language such as C or C++. 

Guide to Build an Operating System From Scratch

Learning the Basics:

  • There should have a little common knowledge of computer science. So, in this case, you can learn introductory Computer Science courses. You should know that to make an operating system. Besides, it needs a strong understanding of algorithms, data structures, computer hardware, and resource management. In this case, many people have degrees, but you do not have to do so. Learn s course for free to know the process of writing this.
  • If possible, try to learn Python, which is a high-level programming language. However, after getting a solid foundational understanding of computer science, you need to learn C and/or C++. You have to master any specific language when you know about computer science. Otherwise, it is impossible to code an operating system without writing solid applications. Beginners are requested to complete their course to C from any site. After completing the course, take the next one available in the list of courses: C Programming: Language Foundations. You should learn Modular Programming and Memory Management and Pointers and Memory Management.
  • If you want, you may try to know about an assembly language. These low-level languages come with a design for communicating with various processors. But different processors use different assemblies like x86 assembly Language for Intel, AMD, VIA, and others. That's why it is essential to know about the version of the processor you are coding. You can get knowledge from the Art of Assembly Language if you want. The book can be got both online and offline. If necessary, then research on the web. You can find the manuals for processor architecture with the help of a Google search ("Intel Manuals," "ARM manuals," etc.).
  • By going through our tutorial, you can understand how to create the operating system. You can take the help of Bare Bones, using which you can write your first simple 32-bit kernel. When this process is finished, you must use Meaty Skeleton to build the structure of the operating system. If you think, take the help of Linux from Scratch. Using the online book, you can make your Linux operating system. You should know that the operating systems which are from 0 to 1 are free books.
  • You need to decide first the purpose for which you want to make the OS. It is essential to know the design that you prefer. Sometimes, you may want to make your PC offer only a specific look. It would be best to consider multiple things before the beginning of the code. The first thing you need to consider is creating the OS with a team of other programmers. If you have a team of developers, you can make the OS quickly. You are merely required to include the project's target, plan, and questions in your public repository.

Building Your Operating System:

  • In this part, your first task should be to select a development environment. It is the place where you have to code the new OS. Usually, people like to use Windows or a flavor of UNIX. However, you can use anything according to your preferences. If necessary, then try to install a UNIX environment. Cygwin or MinGW is an example of this. Ensure that the environment you use comes with a GCC (the Gnu compiler). People who use windows need to install this in Cygwin or MinGW.

Whether you are willing to manipulate object files, you can use Binutils, a collection of tools. If you use Windows, then install this in Cygwin.

However, people use Vim and emacs in UNIX environments. If you are using Windows, you can use Notepad also. If you prefer, then check the Notepad++ out. People can use Perl and/or Python for string manipulation.

  • In this case, you should set a version control system. When you are going to make an OS, you have to write plenty of lines of code.
  • Sometimes, you might not be capable of creating the operating system yourself. Hence, you are required to take the help of a bootloader like Grand Unified Bootloader (GRUB). However, if you have the skill, try to code for a bootloader.
  • You have to select a kernel design that is the core of OS. It is the one that offers an interface between the hardware of the PC and you. Two different types of kernels are available— monolithic kernels and microkernels. In the Monolithic kernel, you can see all the services, whereas, in microkernels, you can see a small kernel with user daemons implementing services. Usually, monolithic ones work quickly, whereas microkernels come with improved fault isolation and reliability.
  • Try to learn small things first, like how to show text, etc. Then, you should move on to the big stuff like memory management and multitasking. If you are willing, try to create a simple 16-bit Operating System rather than taking a big leap. It may not be done entirely if you want a complete system. You should try to build operating systems that are bootable. After that, you can go to the stuff.
  • Use a virtual machine in this case for testing the new operating system. As a result, you are not required to reboot the PC every time, or you don't need to share files from your development computer to the test machine. Take the help of VMWare that is suitable for both Windows and Linux. Take a look at the potential deadlocks and other bugs.
  • Now, your task is to release the option "release candidate." Just upload the code you have tested to the public repository. Users can test the code at any time and report this back if they find any issue on their devices.
  • Finally, your job is to connect with the other OS developers. You can find an entire community of OS developers on the web.

Monday, 6 October 2014

Ten Things to Know About Windows 10

Windows 10
At last we have the official look of the new windows version from Microsoft. Many speculations and unofficial leaks have raised the curiosity among the people. The biggest surprise came in the form of the name as Windows 10. After drawing lots of criticism for their Windows 8 version. The company has gone back to provide some predictable features and some surprises. The new version is being considered to have the best combination of both strategy as well as redesign.

1. New version to be designed to be appealing to office workers: 

Microsoft has been dealing with many complaints about the Windows 8 version for being too complicated to be implemented in larger corporation as well as the retraining requirement for the users needing huge resources. Microsoft has now taken action to appeal to the office workers by using familiar features and removing the features which might not be required. The prime example of this is the Start Menu

2. Appealing to Corporate and IT managers: 

With the increasing security issues, Microsoft has promised an increased level of security, easy manageability and enhanced capabilities on the management side. Upgrade process also has been made easier with improvement in installing and dealing process. Customer app stores will enable the organizations to deal with software deployment as well as permissions.

3. The New version is expected to scale from small smartphones to huge data centers: 

The new version is expected to be available on the latest version of windows phone and tablets, desktop PCs, and even portable devices as well. The same is feature is expected in Xbox one too.

4. The new start menu will be combination of Windows 8's tiles with Windows 7's usability: 

While changes can be expected in the final version after release, but the current preview has indicated a 2 column start menu with old styled icon.

5. Modern apps will be running on desktop through windows: 

Desktop users will now be able to download modern apps and use it like any other apps from the windows store. These will be resizable and can be pinned to the taskbar.

6. Virtual desktops reaching the windows: 

A new task view will let the windows users to have an overview of all the running apps and the user will be able to arrange them between the desktops.

7. Snaps improved: 

This feature will be rejoicing for users with large monitors. They will be able to tile four apps just by dragging on the corner of the screen.

8. Search and power feature expected to be improved: 

The new feature is organized to combine the web and local results. The user can just start by typing in the start menu similar to that of Windows 8. Power users will be able to use Ctrl+V feature to copy-paste into the command prompt.

9. Charms bar to still exist: 

This feature will still be present and visible to users with touch-first devices. This feature is expected to be improved.

10. More expectation: 

With Microsoft indicating many reasons for completely skipping the Windows 9 version, users should be expecting many improvement and refinements in the concept as well as the features.

Sunday, 10 August 2014

Difference Between Windows OS and Linux OS

 Windows OS and Linux OS
Operating System is the basic medium of communication between hardware and software. Operating Systems performs various tasks like Memory management, CPU scheduling, Access control and security, User Interface, Device management and so on. So selecting a good operating system for your computer is really very important. There are many operating systems available in the market. Some are open source and some are closed or proprietary. The two most commonly used operating systems are Linux OS and Windows OS.

Both Linux and Windows have their own advantages and features. Both of them have different architecture of functionality and also both of them have different user friendliness. Both are popular at their own level but on the basis of stats of usage it is observed that Linux is one of the most widespread and popular operating system as compared to Windows or Mac. Linux is present almost everywhere in the world and in every domain of work be it a nuclear power plant or be it McDonalds Linux is everywhere. Some of the most famous companies that use Linux OS and Linux products are: Google, twitter, facebook, amazon, IBM, McDonalds, NASA, NYSC, Tianhe-2, US portal and bank services. Not only this but Linux is also used in internet hosting, missiles and weapons and so on. The list is too long. So you can see how Linux is replacing window OS.

Now let us see some basic differences between the Linux OS and windows OS: 

Linux is a free operating system and is a product of open source software development. While windows is a private or closed OS developed by Microsoft.

There is a freedom of distribution of Linux through any source like website or book but this is not valid with Microsoft. It is a strong illegal activity to distribute this product of Microsoft. It costs around $ 50 to $ 400 if you buy it. The range depends on various versions available.

The open source community has formed the Linux kernel and it is managed officially by Linus Torvalds. But Microsoft created the windows with a fix number of developing professionals.

Till now nearly 60 to 100 viruses are reported for Linux but according to analysis of some professionals it is found that nearly 60,000 viruses are reported for windows till now. So Linux is very much secured as compared to windows. And if anyone will buy a good anti-virus for windows that would cost around $ 10 to $ 300 or even more.

Linux is preceded by basic terminal or CLI while windows is preceded by MS-DOS.

The default user interface used by Linux is Gnome or KDE that depends on distro basically while for windows we have Graphical (Windows Aero) as default user interface.

The license used for Linux development is GNU that is free while windows is proprietary.

Some versions of Linux that are available are: Ubuntu, Fedora, Red Hat, Debian, Arch Linux, Android etc. And different versions of windows are windows 98, windows xp, windows 7, windows 8 etc.

So these are some basic differences which everyone must know about Linux OS and Windows OS. Both are good OS but it depends on the need of user that which operating system is best for his work. We will learn more about Linux in later posts so stay connected.

Saturday, 4 January 2014

How much do you know about Sailfish OS ?

Sailfish OS
We are in the world of smart phones because we used to spend our great time with our mobiles now days, smart mobile offers many more features and facilities. In the world of smart phone there is a competition is taking place between the mobile os which decide the best mobile by offering best features, among mobile os (android, windows, Symbian) competition a new os is going to take part as a competitor sailfish in the race, from upcoming days we know which is the best mobile os among the mobile world. Let we discuss about sailfish.

Sailfish is a Linux based operating system for mobile devices which provides mobile-optimized with flexibility, ubiquity and stability. The most interesting feature of sailfish is it provides the platform to run an android apps and it supports around 85000 apps in play store. Sailfish run on any hardware platform which support Linux kernel. It was built on MeeGo technology which ensures that core cellular functionality like power management and connectivity so on. The core of an os is come from Mer project. Its UI enriches with fast and easy customization because of it built with QML and Qt Quick.


• Hardware
• Kernel
• Mer
• UI and Middleware
• Application
• Application store


Any hardware which capable to support Linux kernel.


All the hardware should specifies kernel patches and drivers through libhybris.


Multimedia, graphics, communication, personal information management, system essentials and development.

UI and Middleware 

It provide unique interface in the way of home screen & switcher, multitasking, integrated UX for key web services and UI performance optimization.


• Jolla Application: Basic app like phone, message, contacts, camera, gallery, settings, etc.
• 3rdparty applications: Maps, web browser and other apps which run on android.

Most attractive features of a sailfish were it can support android apps. Android is well known mobile platform it have more than lakhs application are available in the market is the one of the reason that android become famous in short interval time and also it provide android development features like custom rom and tweaks so on.

Features of Best mobile platform

• Amazing UI
• flexibility
• reliability
• large mobile apps
• mobile platform should provide greater flexibility for developer
• Many tweaks should available for the os which attracts the users.
• Many more

Above all the function merely supported by the sailfish so that sailfish soon overhead android after its launch.


Jolla is the smart phone powered by sailfish. Navigate effortlessly with the gesture-based user interface and loaded with android apps.


Multi-touch display with gorilla glass(gorilla “2)

Ample 4.5” IPS QHD display.


Primary - 8 megapixel AF camera with LED Flash

Secondary – 2 megapixels


16GB storage, 1GB RAM.

Operating system

Sailfish OS beta.

Frequently update via air (OTA) usage WLAN is recommended.


2g / 3g / and also 4g-lite

Vender: Nokia 

About: Jola interface is different to android and iOS, it offers something different from other interface like flexible and freeing and the interface is provide quick and fast response but there is an when switch between the apps.

Why most of the people love XP rather than other operating system

Windows XP
Windows XP is considered as a most operated operating system in the world. Most of the people are still using this operating system in this world. Even we can’t find anyone in this world without knowing XP operating system, I mean among the literal guys in the world. Windows XP was developed by the Microsoft Corporation which is considered as the best operating system by most of the computer geek around us. Even Microsoft Corporation has developed and released Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows 8 too, Windows XP is loved by most of the people and it is the most loved operating system by everyone. Even Microsoft Corporation has stopped the support for Windows XP operating system; people are still using that operating system for most of the purposes.

But most of the people don’t know what makes people to love the Windows XP operating system? And also they were searching for the reason for that. I have noticed that few of the people are requesting the sellers to reformat the built-in Windows 7 operating system and asking to install windows XP in it. This thing is very mystery for most of the people; but now we have analyzed the reason for the popularity of the Windows XP operating system. Here I have listed the reasons why most of the people love to work with Windows XP operating system and here they are;

1. Hardware Requirements for Newer operating system

We know that newer versions of operating system will require more memory and in order to work with the newer operating system we need to provide better hardware capabilities for your personal computer. So, the newer operating system will run smoothly on your local machine. And one more thing is that, newer operating system requires dual amount of graphics support to run an application. For instance, Running NFS underground in Windows XP will require 256 MB of video card. But in the same time, this application will take 512 MB of video card in Windows 7 operating system. So hardware is one of the reasons which make the people to stick with windows XP.

2. Don’t have much information about the other operating system:

It is another reason which makes the people stick with the Windows XP operating system. Some of them will rarely use the computers so that they never know about the other operating system available in the market.

3. Cost of newer OS

The cost of the other operating system will cost more and people who’re running institutions and schools cannot afford operating system for all computers. So, they will go for windows XP operating system for lower cost.

4. Software Compatibility

Most of the designers were coding the software for the windows XP operating system and the latest operating system has more compatibility issues. This makes the people to stick with the Window XP operating system and they use them for more efficient tasking too.

Tuesday, 17 December 2013

Steam OS Beta available for download

Steam OS
Valve released the first beta version of the operating system's own Steam OS and reveals the conditions that should satisfy your computer for it. The first beta version of Steam OS is available for free from now on for anyone who interested. While Sony and Microsoft have heralded with great fanfare of their next generation of consoles, Valve developer start their quite OS slowly, and without much attention his own revolution of gaming.

The first prototypes of the Steam Machine have reached their tester and the associated Steam OS is now available for anyone in a beta version now. If you are interested in Valve’s Steam OS then you should consider few things before download. On installation of Steam OS on your old PC may erase the entire hard drive so better you should only use a fresh computer or back up all important data before on an external memory.

 The PC used should have a 64- bit processor from Intel or AMD, and four gigabytes of memory on board. The built-in hard disk must hold at least 500 gigabytes. The installation consists Valve requires a USB port and support UEFI. UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) is an interface between firmware, PC components and operating system and replaced on many 64 -bit computers the BIOS. Also the other important thing is; this current version Steam OS only works on computers with Nvidia graphics card.

Steam OS 1.0 is dubbed "the Alchemist" and is based on the Linux distribution Debian “Wheezy “. Accordingly, the use of Windows applications is excluded. In addition to Steam and Steam games use Valve loud and many Linux applications on Steam OS when needed. In their Steam website, the developer provides detailed instructions for installation.

However, you should have some basic knowledge of PC systems to pounce with joy in the beta test. Even the installation of Steam OS becomes quite complicated - probably only gamers with a penchant for tinkering and computer technology should make them.